Saturday, 31 August 2013

What is the difference between System Verilog Dynamic Array, Associative Array & Queue and their applications?

Ans: The following is the difference between Dynamic Array, Associative Array & Queue.

Dynamic Array:
  • We use dynamic array when we have no idea about the size of the array during compile time and we have to allocate its size for storage during run time.
  • We basically use this array when we have to store a contiguous or Sequential collection of data.
  • The array indexing should be always integer type.
  • To allocate size of a dynamic array, we have to use new[] operator.
               int my_array [];
                         my_array = new[4];                              //Allocated 4 elements
  • To resize a dynamic array, we have to do as follows:
                       my_array = new[18](my_array);     //Resize the Array and Copy

  • To know the size of the array, we have to use size() operator.
              my_array.size();                    //Returns the current size of the array, my_array as an integer.

  • To delete an element from a dynamic array, we have to use delete() operator.
                       my_array.delete();    //All the elements of array, my_array will be deleted.

Associative Array:
  • It is also allocated during run time.
  • This is the array, where data stored in random fashion.
  • It is used when we don’t have to allocate contiguous collection of data, or data in a proper sequence or index.
  • In associative array, the index itself associates the data. So it is called so.
  • Indexing is not regular, can be accessed using indexing like integer or string type or any scalar. 
my_array ["name"];           // “name”, Index type is a string
my_array[address];           // address, Index type is an integer (here address is an integer).
my_array[my_class];       // my_class, Index type is a class.
my_array[s_array];          // s_array, Index type is an array.
  • It is better to use associative array, when size of the array is unknown & data space is random or irregular or sparse.
  • Following are the methods associated with Associative array. 
          num()returns the number of entries in the Associative array
Eg: my_array.num()
first()assigns the value of the first index in the Associative array to the given index variable Eg:my_array.first(i);
last()assigns the value of the last index in the Associative array to the given index variable Eg:my_array.last(i);
next() — assigns the value of the next index in the Associative array to the given index variable;
prev()assigns the value of the previous index in the Associative array to the given index variable Eg:my_array.prev(i);
delete()removes all the elements in the Associative array.
Eg: my_array.delete(i); If the index is specified, then the element at the specified index “i”is deleted
exists()checks if element exists at the specified index “i” in the Associative array Eg:my_array.exists(i);

  • Queue is a variable size, ordered collection of Homogenous Data.
  • It is flexible, as it is variable in size and analogous to an 1-dimensional Unpacked array that can shrink & grow automatically and can be of size zero.
  • The main advantage of queue over dynamic array is that, we don’t need new[] operator to allocate storage space for a queue.
  • The other advantages of queue over dynamic array is that we can manipulate the queue using various queue methods like: push, pop, delete, insert, size.
module test_example ;
int my_queue[$] = { 1, 2, 3 };
string s_queue [$] = {"first","second","third","fourth"};
string store;
// Use of the size() method/operator
$display("\n size() operator used");
for (int i = 0 ; i < my_queue.size(); i++ )
$display (my_queue[i]);
$display("\n\n Elements of s_queue is :");
for (int i = 0; i < s_queue.size; i++)
$write(s_queue[i]," ");
// Use of insert() method/operator
s_queue.insert(1,"next"); // Previous element 1 is now turned to element 2.
$display("\n\n insert() operator used");
for (int i = 0; i < s_queue.size; i++)
$write(s_queue[i]," ");
// Use of delete() method/operator
s_queue.delete(1); // delete the element 1
s_queue.delete(3); // delete the element 3
$display("\n\n delete() operator used");
for (int i = 0; i < s_queue.size; i++)
$write(string_queue[i]," ");
// Use of pop_front() method/operator (it deletes the front of the queue)
store = s_queue.pop_front();
$display("\n\n pop_front() operator used");
$display(" %s",store);
for (int i = 0; i < s_queue.size; i++)
$write(s_queue[i]," ");
// Use of pop_back() method/operator (it deletes the back of the queue)
store= s_queue.pop_back();
$display("\n\n pop_back() operator used");
$display(" %s",store);
for (int i = 0; i < s_queue.size; i++)
$write(s_queue[i]," ");
// Use of push_front() and push_back() method/operator
$display("\n\n push_front() and push_back() operator used");
for (int i = 0; i < s_queue.size; i++)
$write(s_queue[i]," \n ");

size() operator used

Elements of s_queue[$] is:
first second third fourth

insert() operator used
first next somewhere second third fourth

delete() operator used
first somewhere second fourth

pop_front() operator used
somewhere second fourth

pop_back() operator used
somewhere second

push_front() and push_back() operator used
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MHL 3.0- Bridging the 4K Ultra HD Video to your Smartphone…!!!


The Mobile High-Definition Link abbreviated as MHL is an industrial standard interface that enhance your Smartphones, Tablets capabilities by allowing them to fully integrate with HDTV’s &other CE products, while delivering high-definition (HD) content with an easy-to-implement digital connectivity solution.

Before MHL it was not possible to map your phone's screen to any HDTV or displays, where you can view galleries, photos and videos exactly as you would on your smartphone, but on the big screen. Now the evolution of MHL technology this issue has been pretty well resolved and MHL 2.0 allows the user to view both HD as well as Full HD content of 1080p/60 on the HDTV. But there was no option for the support of Ultra HD video content.

Finally on August, 2013, the MHL Consortium announced that the MHL 3.0 version specification has been finalized. The biggest deal in the MHL 3.0 specification is the support for 4K Ultra HD Video format up to 2160p/30 with a brilliant visual experience. Also the MHL Consortium has announced that it has the ability of transferring data at a double bandwidth than its previous version of MHL 2.0 and also enables the Smartphone to mirror itself on to a Touch Screen Monitor.  Apart from these, this version comes up with tons of exciting, interesting and new features.

What is new in MHL 3.0 :
Following are the some new interesting that comes up with MHL 3.0 Specification.
  • Support for 4K Ultra HD Video:
The MHL 3.0 has the ability to share 4K Ultra HD video format up to 2160p/30 with a brilliant visual experience. Now you can watch all your 4K Ultra HD data content from your Smartphone on a HDTV or Home Theatre System.
  • Support for High speed peripherals along with Improved Remote Control Protocol (RCP):
      Along with 4K video support the new specification enables the support for high speed peripherals such as: Touch Screen, Keyboard and Mouse. It also has the ability for Mass Storage. For this the Remote Control Protocol(RCP) for this version has been updated. So now you can able to map your Smartphone to a touch screen monitor via MHL 3.0
  • Double Bandwidth with Simultaneous High-Speed data Channels:
MHL 3.0 enables the device to share content at a double bandwidth than its predecessor MHL 2.0.
  • High Power Charging Rate:
     The new MHL 3.0 supports power charging up to 10W, which should be sufficient for the Smartphone or Tablets draining power at a faster rate.
  • Support for HDCP 2.2 for Content Protection:
   The MHL 3.0 specification supports HDCP 2.2 protocol for content protection, which there by ensures the more secure delivery of it data.
  • Backward Compatibility:
The new version of MHL 3.0 is fully backward compatible with its predecessors MHL 2.0 and MHL 1.0.
  • Support for Multiple displays & low pin connector:
The MHL 3.0 along with 4K video support also supports for Simultaneous Multiple Displays. Also support connector of very low no of .pins as Five pins.

Finally MHL 3.0 brings good deals for those who love hooking their Smartphone on to HDTV or Home Theatre system to watch movies or play games on a big screen and thereby increases the functionality of there smart phone.
Android attached to a screen by Mobile High Definition Link
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Friday, 30 August 2013


  • 2 Packet Maggie Noodles
  • 2 small Onion finely chopped
  • 1/2 cup Sweet Corn finely chopped.
  • 1 cup Cabbage Finely chopped.
  • 1/2 of a Capsicum finely chopped.
  • 1/2 cup French Beans finely chopped.
  • 1/2 cup Carrot finely chopped.
  • 1 small Tomato finely chopped.
  • 1/2 cup Mushroom finely chopped.
  • 2-3 Green Chilies finely chopped.
  • 1/4th cup Coriander leaves finely chopped.
  • 1 cup Besan / Gram Flour.
  • 1 cup Corn Flour powder.
  • 2 tbs Curry Powder/ Chicken Masala.
  • Salt to Taste
  • Oil to Fry.
  • Boil the Maggie Noodles without Masala.
  • Then drain water completely, let it cool but don't let it dry.
  • Then in a bowl add the boiled Maggie noodles, all the chopped Vegetables, Corn flour powder, Besan, Maggie Masala, Chicken Masala and Salt to taste.
  • Mix all the ingredients well and very little water if required.
  • Then take oil in Pan in medium flame for deep frying.
  • Once the Oil gets hot, make small size of balls of the mixture and place it in oil for deep fry.
  • Keep frying in medium flame until become golden color and crisp.
  • Serve hot with Tomato Ketchup for Best Taste...!! 
                                                                    Maggie Pakoda

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Dates : A Nutritional Supplement

Dates are the sweet, nutrient, delicious fruit. It consists of lot of minerals. These are different varieties of dates depending on shape, size, colour, taste and types. Dates exist in 3 types:
  •  Soft
  •  Semi-Dry
  •  Dry

Some of the soft dates are Barhee, Halawy, Khadrawy, Medjool. Similarly some of the semi-dry dates are Dayri, Deglet Noor, Zahdi and Thoory is one of the dry dates.Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and produce viable furnish for commercial harvest between 7 to 10 years.Mature date palms can yields 80–120 kilograms of dates per harvest season.

  •  Dates are an excellent source of Iron, Potassium and Fiber.
  •  They are also rich in minerals like calcium, manganese, copper, and magnesium. Calcium is an important mineral that is an essential constituent of bone and teeth, and required by the body for muscle contraction, blood clotting, and nerve impulse conduction. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Copper is required for the production of red blood cells. Magnesium is essential for bone growth.
  •  Dates are treated as Energy Booster. As dates are rich in natural sugars like glucose, fructose and sucrose. Therefore they are the perfect snack for an immediate burst of energy.
  •  The fruit has adequate levels of B-complex group of vitamins as well as vitamin K.
  •  Dates are an excellent remedy for alcoholic intoxication.
  •  An effective remedy for Weak heart. Dates soaked in water overnight and then crushed in the same water (remove the seed) in the morning, at least twice a week can make your heart strong.
  •  Dates can relief from constipation, intestinal disorders, anaemia, sexual dysfunction, diarrhoea, abdominal cancer, and many other conditions.
  •  The nervous system can get a lot of help from consuming dates due to potassium content in it.
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Thursday, 29 August 2013

The Curing Nature of Wheatgrass

Wheatgrass is the main source of cure starting from Headache to Cancer. Wheatgrass contains the same vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals found in leafy vegetables.It can either in juice or powder form.


Some Benefits:
  • It helps in stimulating the Thyroid Gland.
  • It reduces the Blood Pressure(BP).
  • It  is act as as a disinfectant which soothes sunburned skin.
  • It is a detoxifying agent which protects our Liver and blood.
  • It increases the Red Blood Cell(RBC) count.
  • It increases the energy level.
  • It is helpful for damaged hair,just rub it on your scalp.
  • It will help in tightening loose and sagging skin
  • It is soothing and healing for cuts, burns, scrapes, rashes.
  • If your hair is becoming grey in colour,then it will revert back to its original colour again.
  • It can keep you younger for a long time as it  cleanses your blood and  rejuvenates the aging cells which slows down the aging process.
  • It keeps your breath cool, sweet and germ free.
  • Having the wheat grass regularly increase your memory power.
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    The Tablet Screen size of Google Nexus 7(2013) has the highest resolution in the  world.This is the second generation of Nexus made by Asus.
    The new Nexus 7 is the first gadget to be shipped on an updated version of Google's Jelly Bean operating system(Android 4.3) with three models.
    • $229 for 16 GB  Wi-Fi(Available)
    • $269 for 32 GB Wi-Fi(Available)
    • $349 for 32 GB  LTE(Coming Soon)
    New Nexus 7 is very light ,that one can take anywhere and fits easily in bags, backpacks, and even in back-pockets.Nexus 7 has a high-definition screen and speakers that allow for virtual surround sound listening of films, games, or music. App switching is smooth and speedy, and gameplay and video playback are virtually straggle and stumble-free. Scrolling in the browser is also smooth. Google has included wireless charging on the Nexus 7. Google says the new device is supposed to get an hour more battery life than the original Nexus 7(2012).                               

    Features Of  Google Nexus 7(2013)
    • Google's Android 4.3 Operating System
    • 1.5GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 Pro processor
    • 2 GB RAM
    • The display size is 1920 x 1200 HD (323 pixel per inch)
    • 1080 pixels HD IPS(In-panel Switching)
    • Screen size is 7.02 inch
    • It has 5 megapixel rear camera(auto focus), 1.2 megapixel(fixed focus) front facing camera
    • 7.87 inches in height, 4.49 inches in width, 0.34 inch in thickness
    • 10.2 ounces/0.64 lbs (290 grams)in Weight for base model(Wi-Fi), 10.5 ounces/    0.66lbs (299 grams) for cellular version (LTE)
    • Battery life  is 9 hours ,3950mAh
    • It has Bluetooth 4.0
    • With dual-band Wi-Fi and optional 4G LTE
    • Stereo speakers
  • we can access to a variety of games and other software for android devices.
  • Option for cellular wireless broadband(LTE).
  • It has a dazzling display, complaint-free performance, and solid battery life which wraps it in a super elegant, lightweight package. Well worth the money.
  • Data storage cannot be expanded with memory cards.
  • Some third-party apps must be updated for Android 4.3.
  • No slot for Micro SD Card.
  • Limited Storage Capacity.
  • No Support for MHL or HDMI to connect the device to HDTVs.
  • No Support for Sim Card Feature.
  • No 3G Connectivity Support.
  • Average Front & Rear Camera.
  • No Flash for Rear Camera though has Auto Focus.
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Wednesday, 28 August 2013

Indian Traditional Sari/Saree

Sari or Saree is a traditional outfit of women in India.In all auspicious occasion all women like to wear saris.It is very comfortable.
There are so many ways of wearing a sari.some of them are:
  • Nivi style(AP)
  • Bengali and Oriya style
  • Gujarati and Rajasthani style
  • Maharashtrian and Konkani style
  • Malayali style
  • Kodagu style(Karnataka)
  • Madisar(Tamil Nadu)
There are different categories of saris depending upon different regions and places in India,such as
  •     Chanderi saree(MP)
  •     Kosa silk(Chhatisgarh)
  • Sambalpuri saree silk and cotton(Sambalpur Orissa)
  • Bomkai/Sonepuri sari silk & cotton(Subarnapur/sonepur Orissa)
  • Bapta silk and cotton(Koraout Orissa)
  • Mooga silk(Assam)
  • Baluchari silk (WB)
  • Tussar silk(Bihar)
  • Paithani(Maharashtra)
  • Bandhani(Gujarat and Rajasthan)
  • Patola(Gujarat)
  • Kota doria(Rajasthan)
  • Banarasi(UP)
  • Mysore silk sari(Mysore Karnataka)
  • Kanchipuram or Kanjivaram(Tamilnadu)
  • Pochampally sari(AP)
Now-a-days saris are available through online shopping sites.The followings are some good sites to  buy  sari in my experience:
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Koshala/Bhajji ( Amaranth Leaves) – 500gm

                                                              KOSHALA SAGA
  • 1- small size Potato
  • 1-small size Onion
  • 10 cloves of Garlic
  • 2-3 pieces of Dry Red Chilly or Green Chilly
  • 10-12 Urad Dal Badi                                                                                          
                                                                 URAD DAL BADI
  • 4-tbs Oil
  • Pancha Phutana
  • Salt to Taste.
  • First clean the Saga properly 2-3 times & drain the water. Then cut into small pieces and keep it aside.
  • Cut the Onion in to slices and Potato in to small pieces. Crush the cloves of Garlic and keep all these things aside.
  • Then take pan and heat it in medium flame. Add the potato and the cut saga pieces into it. Add some salt to it and cover up the pan for around 5-6 minutes till the leaves become softer.
  • In the meanwhile, take pan and heat in medium flame. Add 2-3 tbs oil to it and add the urad dal badi to it. Fry the badi till it becomes brown color.
  • Then crush the badi and put it aside.
  • Then take rest of the oil in the pan in medium heat. Add the pancha phutana, Green or dry red chili, then add the sliced onion and fry it.
  • Then add the crushed Garlic cloves. Fry it for 2-3 minutes more.
  • Then add the boiled saga and potato to it and fry for 2-3 minutes. Add salt to taste if necessary.
  • After that remove the saga from the pan and add the crushed urad dal badi over it. Serve it hot.

                                                           KOSHALA SAGA FRY
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Tuesday, 27 August 2013

Amazon Kindle (More Info)

It is a compact digital electronic device used for reading books and other text materials that are in digital form. It contains a paper-like display technology which makes it easy to even read it bright Sunshine.They can vary in Size, Weight, Appearance and Features.The Amazon Kindle is the 3rd Version of Kindle, which comes with 8,00,000 books and also allows the user to read books, magazines, PDFs and newspapers.It allows you to take the entire library wherever you go.


                                                         AMAZON  KINDLE


1) The single eBook kindle reader can hold upto 1400 titles(books, magazines, blogs, newspapers) in its memory.
2) Offers Wi-fi connectivity to the user.
3) Kindle comes with a storage space of 2 or 4 GB & also stores the user's entire library in the cloud, there by allowing the user to delete and re-download titles to organize and save space.
4) It allows the user to bookmark, highlight a selection of text or even type notes as you read. By this features, kindle has the potential to replace hardcopy textbooks in the future.
5) Adjustable text features makes it easy to read.
6) Don't have to go to the bookstore or newspaper stand, all can download from home.
7) Able to view PDFs quickly:
   > Meeting Schedule
   > Employee Training Manual
   > Converted Power Point Presentations
   > Company Policies
   > Financial Reviews
1) In the new Amazon Kindle, in its either there are two new button. So that the user can move easily for "next page" and "previous page".
2) The new Kindle comes with a direction pad for navigation thereby replacing the previous Scroll wheel in the Original Kindle.
3) The Home, Menu and Back buttons help the user to navigate through the books and the built-in Web browser.
4) On the base of the Kindle there you'll find a headphone jack(to enjoy the MP3 files), a USB port, a power adapter plug and a pair of volume buttons.
5) Underneath of the rubberized pad of the Kindle there is a slot for standard SD flash memory card.
6) Now it can translate selected words into other languages via Bing Translator.
7) The X-Ray feature allows you to view a graphical presentation of all the passages related to certain characters, places or recurring topics that occur across a page.
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ALGAE FUEL-A New Renewable Resource as Biofuel

Energy means as one’s ability to do work, which can neither created nor destroyed. It only transforms from one form to another. All the forms of energy come under two Category, i.e. Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy.

Kinetic Energy is defined as “the energy in the form of motion”, where as Potential Energy is defined as “the energy of a particle or system of particles by virtue of its position or condition”. It is called as Potential Energy as it can be converted to other forms of energy, ex-: Kinetic Energy. Fuel produces Heat comes under potential energy. 

Fuel are the materials that store Potential Energy. Two types of Fuel sources are there, Fossil Fuel & Renewable Fuel. Algae Fuel is one of such Renewable Fuel resource.

What is Algae Fuel?

Algae Fuel is a Renewable, Biofuel resource, which is produced from Algae. It is an alternative options to limited Fossil Fuel that uses algae as its source of production. Algae are microorganisms that are usually harvested through open-pond growing, a process of growing organisms in sunny areas for maximum growth.

Micro Algae

Certain types of algae contain natural oils that can be readily distilled into a vegetable oil or a number of petroleum-like products that could serve as drop-in replacements for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel.
Algae fuel is a very good alternative for the standard crop biofuel like Soy & Canola. Also up to 70% biomass of algae is usable oil.

Presently the ongoing demand for a cleaner, greener & environment friendly biofuel scientists have been looking forward for more research on this biofuel from: Algae. Alga (or its plural, algae) may be the miracle element in the search for a more environmentally-friendly, mass-produced product that can be converted into fuel.

 As it can grow naturally all over the world. Under optimal conditions, it can be grown in massive, almost limitless, amounts. Due to this by harnessing biofuel from algae production, scientists seek to produce algal biofuel on a large-scale for use as a transportation fuel.

Need for Algae Fuel?

Present world facing with two highly concerned & alarming major issues of rapid consumption of limited Fossil Fuel & Environmental Degradation because of this rapid consumption of Fossil Fuel.

Also the cost the cost for fossil fuel have especially crude oil, have skyrocketed and global consumption of fossil fuels continues to rise one can project that recent rates of crude oil consumption will exhaust the proved world reserves in approximately 40 years.

So the need 7 popularity for sustainable alternative fuels has recently drawn greater public attention & the evolution of biofuel production, especially biodiesel from microalgae.

Most importantly, they yield more oil per acre (7 to 31 times) than other biomass feed stocks. In fact, it produces up to 30 times more oil per unit of land compared to oilseed crops like palm and soy.

Algae can produce up to 300 times more oil per unit area than conventional crops such as rapeseed, palms, soybeans, or jatropha.

While there currently is no significant production of algae for biofuel, but several thousand tons are farmed commercially each year.  These algae are used for nutra-ceuticals, food additives or nutritional supplements.  Several commonly cultivated species of microalgae include Spirulina, Chlorella, Dunaliella and Haematococcus.

As algae have a very short harvesting cycle of 1–10 days, their cultivation permits several harvests in a very short time span. They can grow on land unsuitable for other established crops, for instance: arid land, land with excessively saline soil, and drought-stricken land. This minimizes the issue of taking away pieces of land for the cultivation of algae.

Basically there are two systems for microalgae production:  Photobioreactors and Open Ponds.

Photobioreactors: these are closed, self-contained systems in which nutrient rich water containing algae are pumped into plastic or borosilicate tubes known as “bioreactors and are exposed to Sunlight. So these bioreactors are called as photobioreactors.
This systems is more prevalent, primarily as they are well suited to small-scale production.  They are most commonly used by government and university labs, and small projects for research and demonstration purposes.
Though it is costlier as compared to Open Ponds but yields in higher productivity & control.

Open Ponds: however, most large-scale, commercial microalgae biomass production is done in open ponds. This is generally preferred for cultivating algae with high oil content. But the main disadvantage of this system is that it is less secure and vulnerable to viral infection.                                                              

Open Pond Cultivation

Following are the several factors which affects the Algae cultivation.

·         Climate: algae cultivation requires ample sunlight. Cold Weather reduces the production. Similarly, the Overcast days reduces sunlight, there by the production.
·         Nutrients: nutrients like Nitrogen & Silicate also affects the cultivation. Nitrogen aids in cell division whereas Silicate aids in cell wall production. So by depleting these two nutrients it results in an increase in oil to mass ratio.
·         CO2: CO2 increases the production rate. Typically, about 1.8 tons of CO2 will be utilized per ton of algal biomass (dry) produced, though this varies with algae species.
·         Waste Water: sufficient waste water must be there for higher productivity. But it should be processed before use for algae cultivation else it may create viral infection.

·         High and rapid growth of algae. Certain species of algae can be harvested daily.
·         A higher per acre yield (approx. 7 to 31 times more than the next best crop- Palm Oil).
·         Algae biofuel contains no Sulphur, is non-toxic and is highly bio-degradable.
·         Inherently renewable and a good replacement for liquid Fossil fuel like Petrol.
·         Absorbs CO2 as they grow, so they could be used to capture CO2 from power stations, industrial plant & vehicles and thereby reduces the content of CO2 in atmosphere and also the risk of global warming.
·         Can be cultivated in any land.

·         Needs suitable temperature and ample sunlight.
·         Requires sufficient amount of waste water.
·         Requires rich CO2 content.
·         High capital costs in the systems used to cultivate algae, harvest it, and extract its oil.

FUTURE of Algae Fuel:

Algae-based bio-fuel is a promising energy source that is in the latter stages of development. A number of issues related to the ultimate cost of the product need to be resolved, but there is a good deal of research money going into this as production is beginning to scale up.

Country like India, consumes crude oil at a rate far above its production rate, leaving it whole dependent on foreign oil supplies. With an estimated 70% of petroleum being used by automobiles, developing liquid alternative fuels usable in vehicles is vital, making biofuels an attractive option.

Therefore, in the future, as scientists seeking more research on minimizing the costs and thereby maximizing the benefits of algal production, algal biofuel as it may see a rapid growth in development. Even though there are some disadvantages with algae-based biofuel as opposed to conventional biofuel sources, algae-based biofuel offers a promising future to reducing the high cost and the dependency on fossil fuels and a clean and green environment.
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